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Nanobody, also called as Single Domain Antibody. A single-domain antibody (sdAb) is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain. It is able to bind selectively to a specific antigen like a whole antibody.

With a molecular weight of only 12–15 kDa, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150–160 kDa) which are composed of two heavy protein chains and two light chains, and even smaller than Fab fragments (~50 kDa, one light chain and half a heavy chain) and single-chain variable fragments (~25 kDa, two variable domains, one from a light and one from a heavy chain).

Nanobody, Nb

Advantage of Nanobody:

1. High affinity to antigens
2. heat-resistant and stable towards detergents like high concentrations urea
3. more soluble in water and aggregation resistant
4. better permeability in tissues
5. high yield and can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems
6. Low toxicity and low immunogenicity
6. can humanization easily
7. can couple with other molecules easily


The main disadvantage of nanobodies is their short half-life as drugs. There have been many methods that can be effectively modified to increase the half-life, including methods such as Fc fusion, PEGylation, albumin fusion, and multivalent nanobody fusion.

Llama mAb
Llama Single-domain Antibody
Single Domain Ab
Single Domain Antibody
Single Domain/SdAb or VHH Antibody
Single Domain Antibody(sdAb)

Production of Nanobody:

Phase Procedure Details Inquiry
Phase I Immunization Immunization of llama on standard 12 weeks protocol
ELISA using each bleed against antigen
Phase II PBMCs isolation PBMC's isolated and preserved from 100mL blood collected at weeks 8 and 12 Inquiry
Phase III Library Construction sdAb library construction from Phase II PBMC's Inquiry
Phase IV Library Screening Screening by direct ELISA
Selection and sequencing of high affinity binders
Relative affinity determination by ELISA
Phase V Production Express and purification of additional quantities of antibody Inquiry

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